Most failures of root canal treatments are best corrected with retreatments, however there are some situations when surgery is necessary.
The most common surgery used to save a tooth is Apicoectomy. This is recommended when the inflammation or infection persists in the area around the root of the tooth.
This procedure consists of the endodontist making a small incision on the gum tissue around the tooth in question to access the tip of the root. The damaged tissue is removed along with the end of the root tip.
A root end filling is placed to prevent re-infection and the gum is sutured. The bone heals around the end of the root over a period of a few months.